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What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman

What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman


The biggest kidney stone on record
weighed more than a kilogram and was 17 centimeters in diameter. The patient didn’t actually
swallow a stone the size of a coconut. Kidney stones form inside the body, but unfortunately, they’re extremely
painful to get out. A kidney stone is a hard mass
of crystals that can form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Urine contains compounds
that consist of calcium, sodium, potassium, oxalate, uric acid, and phosphate. If the levels of these particles
get too high, or if urine becomes too acidic
or basic, the particles can clump together
and crystallize. Unless the problem is addressed, the crystals will gradually grow
over a few weeks, months, or even years, forming a detectable stone. Calcium oxalate is the most common
type of crystal to form this way, and accounts for about
80% of kidney stones. Less common kidney stones are made
of calcium phosphate, or uric acid. A slightly different type of stone made of the minerals magnesium
ammonium phosphate, or struvite, can be caused by bacterial infection. And even rarer stones can result
from genetic disorders or certain medications. A kidney stone can go undetected
until it starts to move. When a stone travels
through the kidney and into the ureter, its sharp edges scratch
the walls of the urinary tract. Nerve endings embedded in this tissue
transmit excruciating pain signals through the nervous system. And the scratches can send blood flowing
into the urine. This can be accompanied
by symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and a burning sensation while urinating. If a stone gets big enough
to actually block the flow of urine, it can create an infection,
or back flow, and damage the kidneys themselves. But most kidney stones
don’t become this serious, or even require invasive treatment. Masses less than five millimeters
in diameter will usually pass out
of the body on their own. A doctor will often simply recommend
drinking large amounts of water to help speed the process along, and maybe taking some pain killers. If the stone is slightly larger,
medications like alpha blockers can help by relaxing the muscles
in the ureter and making it easier
for the stone to get through. Another medication called
potassium citrate can help dissolve the stones by creating
a less acidic urine. For medium-sized stones up to about
ten millimeters, one option is pulverizing them
with soundwaves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
uses high-intensity pulses of focused ultrasonic energy
aimed directly at the stone. The pulses create vibrations inside
the stone itself and small bubbles jostle it. These combined forces crush the stone
into smaller pieces that can pass out of the body more easily. But zapping a stone with sound
doesn’t work as well if it’s simply too big. So sometimes, more invasive
treatments are necessary. A rigid tube called a stent
can be placed in the ureter to expand it. Optical fibers can deliver laser pulses
to break up the stone. Stones can also be surgically removed
through an incision in the patient’s back or groin. What about just avoiding kidney stones
in the first place? For people prone to them, their doctor may recommend
drinking plenty of water, which dilutes the calcium oxalate
and other compounds that eventually build up
into painful stones. Foods like potato chips, spinach, rhubarb, and beets are high in oxalate, so doctors might advise limiting them. Even though calcium
is often found in stones, calcium in foods and beverages
can actually help by binding to oxalate
in the digestive tract before it can be absorbed
and reach the kidneys. If you do end up with a kidney stone,
you’re not alone. Data suggests that rates are rising, but that world record probably
won’t be broken any time soon.

100 thoughts on “What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman”

  1. I had a kidney stone last year, 2cm. I honestly thought I was gonna die. I was convulsing and throwing up and drooling from the pain.

  2. I have got 5mm kidney stone now 4 day later stone is stuck inside and I have been send home from hospital welcome to the Uk !!!! Steel in pain !!!

  3. I’d like to be able to wish I’d never get a kidney stone like 75% of the people in this comment section, but, I’ve already had two in both kidneys and they’re reoccurring ! Good times, good times. ᕕ(ᐛ)ᕗ

  4. I have passed 3 stones in my life. I would rather have a surgical procedure while awake than have to pass another stone

  5. what should I do I have orzaka brand water only and I am boycotting nestle and I learned that it is owned by nestle but I don't want kidney stones help

  6. Drinking any other water other than distilled water causes kidney stones.. Inorganic minerals cause it. Spring water is dangerous!

  7. i was crawling around on the floor in the ER begging for morphine …also vomited into a trashcan from the pain…good times

  8. I had a kidney stone a couple years ago. Took almost 2 months to pass. Excruciating pain that I wouldn't wish on my worst enemy. 8 trips to Emergency Room. First visit, was told I needed surgery due to its size, and they were scheduling surgery immediately. They asked for my insurance info to admit me to hospital. When I gave them my Medicaid info, they came back and said "here's an Rx for pain meds, go home and wait for it to pass." Same story each visit after that "here's some pain meds, go home and wait for it to pass." The pain was so intense, that the pain meds only alleviated 30% of the pain.

  9. I had one 1.3 centimeters and I couldn't pass it. After the surgery I was never the same and it led to impotency problems when I was 66. Drink Water and stay away from Coca Cola type drinks because they're full of Oxcylates. My stone was oxcylates, phosphates, and calcium (too much dairy). Drink mostly Water Water Water.

  10. I had one when I was 8 and 15 years old from pounding milk. Thought I was gonna die. They found 5 more but those broke up on their own, thank the stone gods

  11. when I was in hospital for an unrelated treatment a guy in the same room was passing a kidney stone and I've never heard such screaming before – he was in unbelievable pain 😲

  12. I’ve had kidney stones before…If it is not yet too big, drink pure lemon juice in the morning everyday…It is really working…

  13. I've faced the problem two times in recent years sometimes My urine is full blood and the pain don't let me sleep full night

  14. A colleague mentioned she had them just last week, so I was curious to try to better understand what she's dealing with. Thank you for this helpful video and explanation.

  15. After watching this, im so scared that im to the point where my side is having very minimal pain. Its just in my head

  16. As a women that has given birth and had passed kidney stones before, i can vouch for and say that KIDNEY PAINS ARE WAYY EXCRUCIATING.
    Just wondering if any men can tell me if being kicked in the nuts or passing kidney stones hurts more?

  17. My mother had a stone somewhere in her body but one day she went into the bathroom to pee and she said that something got out. Then she saw it and saw a stone.

  18. The human body: yeah, i think I’ll have these excruciatingly painful stones build up in the kidneys with no natural way to dissolve them

    Evolution: wait, I could have developed an acid in urine perfect for –

    The human body: shh

  19. AHHHHH just imagine your peeing and then you see this GIANT OF BALL just comes out AHHHH IT'S…….. disturbing 🌈

  20. If you r watching this wondering if you r passing a kidney stone, YOUR NOT! if u were, there would be no question about it!

  21. EVERYONE, you can prevent kidney stones by drinking Chanca Piedra which means "stone breaker" in spanish, its a plant from S. America. It tastes like mud but if you have ever experienced the pain of stones, you will gulp it down. Nothing else worked for me.

  22. دلیل خوب بودن ویدیو
    اینکه۳۳ هزار نفر اوکی دادن
    وفقط ۵۰۰ تا خوششون نیامده

  23. I remember volunteering for the emergency department in Edmonton General Hospital, Canada. There was this person who appears to be in the waiting area for hours after midnight. Nurses are all chatting, eating, not doing anything much. Then he starts to bleed and he was shaking with pain. Only then he was admitted and got to see the doctor right away. There is Canadian health care system for you.

  24. Had a kidney stone when I was 20 which worked itself out after 4 hours. The pain was excruciating. I had broken a few bones and pulled some muscles but nothing came close to the pain I experienced with the passing of the kidney stone.

  25. I have had kidney stones since I was in 6th grade. I am now 29 years old. Its gets easier the older you get due to what i call stretching of the urethra tube. Mine are due to a lack of balance in my body and also certain foods and drinks i have to avoid as well. My biggest I passed was 5mm had to be admitted into the ER. Most pain i have ever felt and i have been shot in the leg and finger in which my finger tip was almost blown off. Its easier if your old enough to just drink beer while passing stone as the beer takes pain away and helps you pee the stone out faster. I had the coolest Urologist and he told my parents when i was 18 to just give me beer it is better than giving me a bottle of pain meds and getting addicted and destroying liver faster than beer would.

  26. I’ve had 3 episodes of passing kidney Stones in my life. The pain was a unbearable that I couldn’t stop vomiting. each episode lasted about 6-12 hours, I just had to wait it out. It’s been years now, and haven’t had another episode because of the increase in water I’m drinking.

  27. Acid and PH is your friend when dissolving stones. Drink lemon juice from freshly squeezed lemons to dissolve CALCIUM ox stones (80% of all stones).

  28. There is also a bacteria called oxalobacter formigenes which breaks down calcium oxalate in the body. But since we take antibiotics this bacteria is killed and never reintroduced into the body. Thus kidney stones form. edit:grammar

  29. Having beer 🍻 always helped me to get stone out of body via urine…
    Yes, I am not lying at all…
    I passed.. i don't even remember.. i think 5 or 6 stones (small, not so big) in last 7 months… from when i started drinking beer regularly like in every week..
    So Don't worry at all. Drink Beer, Enjoy, Stay fit & healthy.. ☺️😊

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